According to the Protocol Concerning Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden – 2005 and parallel to the Global Program of Action, wastes or marine litter dumped in the coastal zone should be taken into consideration to avoid the risks imposed on marine life. Based on the Assessment Report, dumping solid wastes in the coastal zone of the Protocol Area represents a major cause of damage to coastal and marine habitats as well as the destruction of its aesthetic values. This ultimately results in negative impacts on coastal development, particularly the tourist industry. Incineration of wastes is a process that causes numerous persistent, toxic and biologically accumulative emissions.
Researchers traditionally classify litter source as either land- or ocean-based, depending on where it enters the water. Other factors such as ocean current patterns, climate and tides, and proximity to urban centers, industrial and recreational areas, shipping lanes, and commercial fishing grounds influence the type and amount of litter that is found in open ocean areas or collected along beaches and ocean including underwater areas.According to the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP), land-based sources account for up to 80 percent of the world’s marine pollution (GESAMP, 1991). Much of the litter reaches the ocean by beach-going activities, being blown into the water, or is carried by creeks, rivers, and storm drains/sewers to ocean areas. Other litter comes from activities on the water, including vessels (from small sailboats to large ships), offshore drilling rigs and platforms, and fishing piers.
The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden